POSTER 16: BPH - Outdoor and indoor comfort, and link with health
Regional differences in the impacts of temperature extremes on cardiovascular health in the Czech Republic
1Institute of Atmospheric Physics AS CR, Czech Republic; 2Faculty of Science, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
Both high and low temperature extremes are associated with pronounced effects on human health in mid-latitudes. While the effects of heat stress are exacerbated in cities, cold-related mortality may be less pronounced in urban areas, due to higher temperatures, lower wind chill effect, and better accessibility of health services (particularly during heavy snowfall episodes). The present study resumes previous research that examined differences in the impacts of temperature extremes between the city of Prague and a rural region in the Czech Republic (South Bohemia), by evaluating in detail spatial patterns of the effects of high and low temperature extremes on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity (hospital admissions). We make use of age-standardized mortality and morbidity datasets since 1994, and examine the impacts on main groups of cardiovascular diseases in individual regions of the Czech Republic. Using the Census 2001 databases, regions with relatively high and low socioeconomic status (SES) are identified in the first step, and they are further split according to the proportion of urban population and into predominantly industrial and agricultural areas. Differences in the impacts of heat- and cold-stress on mortality and morbidity in these regions are examined. We apply Generalized Additive Models (GAMs) to model relationships between air temperature, biometeorological indices (apparent temperature, physiologically equivalent temperature) and mortality or morbidity, adjusted for environmental and socioeconomic confounders and/or modifiers. After taking into account lagged effects in temperature-mortality relationships, we find that heat-related mortality is most pronounced in highly urbanised districts with low SES, while cold stress leads to excess mortality especially in rural districts with low SES. The results help identify population most at risk and improve biometeorological warning systems as well as other measures preventing negative heat- and cold-stress effects on public health.
OUTDOOR COMFORT STUDY IN DOWNTOWN RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZI
1UFRJ; 2UFTPR; 3UFF
For the purpose of understanding thermal preferences and for defining a preliminary outdoor comfort range for the local population in downtown Rio de Janeiro, an extensive series of measurements with concurrent surveys was carried out through two summer periods in 2012/2013 and 2013/2014. The summer season was adopted in this case as this characterizes the most extreme part of the year in terms of thermal discomfort in Rio de Janeiro. Fourteen monitoring campaigns took place at seven different monitoring points in pedestrian areas with limited vehicle access. The monitoring points were pre-defined for evaluation in respect of urban geometry attributes (narrow streets, proximity to green spaces and urban parks, uniform / non-uniform street canyons, public squares) and are located near historic sites of interest. The definition of each point was based on photographic imagery of the surrounding area and on the obtained sky view factor (obtained with fisheye lens and calculated to each point). A Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station, equipped with temperature and humidity sensors, anemometer cup with wind vane, silicon pyranometer and globe thermometer was employed, which was mounted on a bycicle (‘Meteobike’) for easy access to each point. A comfort questionnaire was used for assessing the respondent’s thermal perception and sensation by means of two symmetrical 7-point two-pole scales. Respondents were eventual passers-by, with a residency in Rio de Janeiro of no less than six months and which were exposed to the outdoors at least for 15 minutes. The sample consists of 667 votes, 60% male and 40% female subjects, with age ranging 13-87 years-old. The field work comprised fourteen campaigns, which were carried out on clear days within the time interval from 10 am to 3 pm. Measured air temperature ranged 25-32° C and relative humidity 55-82%. A preliminary analysis suggests relevant relationships, such as a direct interference in the thermal sensation of passers from the presence of greenery. Results also point that index predictions (with the outdoor thermal index PET) seem to closely correlate to the actual thermal votes of respondents. Outcomes from this research could provide a reference range for planners towards climate responsive urban design.
Cool effects and thermal comforts of different landscape conditions in a Nigerian University
Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria
With a view of analyzing cool effects of recreational open spaces, green spaces and built spaces on the thermal environment and comfortability of space users / in-dwellers, a measurement campaign was set up during an intensive operation period from November 1st 2014 to November 23rd 2014 to collect temperature and relative humidity data and other secondary data within the University of Ibadan, Nigeria (established in 1948) at selected locations which include; a botanical garden, a university park, a lawn open space and built environments. Fixed point observations are made using shielded stand alone i- button thermocron electronic sensors at 10-minute sampling interval. Appropriate indices were engaged to analyse the data and results were presented. Results showed that the green spaces can weaken urban heat island effect, but the built-up land can accelerate it. It is also observed that well planned green spaces (tree species and planting patterns) have more comfortable and conducive thermal environment, and are better utilized by users. This study has shown how the cool effects and thermal comfort conditions of these spaces, the planting pattern and tree species influences the space utilization by visitors, staff and students of the University. It further makes recommendations to physical planning units and urban designers.
KEYWORDS: Cool effects, Thermal comfort, Open spaces, Green spaces, University
Features of the pedestrian thermal environment on a Campus University
Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Brazil
Studies on urban thermal comfort are a technological challenge due to difficulties in measuring and weighting the influence of the design of the built environment on the development of urban heat island and on microclimatic changes. The development of tools and methods to evaluate the thermal behavior in between different typologies of the built environment are actions required to avoid uncertainties and get a high quality on results of the researches in urban open spaces. For this reason, tools of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are widely applied for creating thematic maps of the thermal environment. The application of this technology allows the recognition of regions and territories, leading to good control of different data levels and treatments. This paper applies a GIS platform to evaluate the thermal influence of different built environments on the pedestrian thermal comfort of a University Campus. For this purpose, two field campaigns of data collection were carried on during the months of June and October in 2014. Air temperature, wind velocity, air humidity and mean radiant temperature were registered, while the pedestrians were inquired about their thermal sensation. The features of open spaces were considered by their constructive mass, vegetation and sky view factor - which is the percentage of visible sky from the pedestrian point of view. The results allowed addressing some relationships among the constructive mass, vegetation, sky view factor and the thermal variation between the built-up points of analysis and a totally open area.
Interrelationship of indoor radon concentration and meteorological parameters in Łódź (Central Poland) case study – preliminary results
University of Lodz, Poland
Epidemiological studies indicate the indoor exposure of radon (Rn-222), natural radioactive gas, and its progeny (Po-218, Pb-214, Bi-214) as a potential hazards of lung cancer. Therefore, Rn-222 is considered as a significant contaminant of indoor air quality. The aim of the study was to investigate the variability of Rn-222 concentration in indoor air with reference to weather patterns with special consideration of air pressure and indoor-outdoor air temperature differences. Preliminary experiments comprising Rn-222 concentration measurements using AlphaGUARD® PQ2000PRO (ionization chamber, diffusion mode) in the two-storey detached house without basements in Łódź. Database consisted of 10-minutes (September - October 2007) and hourly (May 2014 - May 2015) averages of Rn-222 concentration. Clear daily pattern of Rn-222 concentration with increase at night and in the early morning and decrease in the afternoon was observed during cloudless anticyclonic weather with slight wind and high air temperature amplitudes. During the movement of low pressure system (with atmospheric fronts and strong winds) over Central Poland the average Rn-222 level was twice as high and did not exhibit a daily cycle. The highest Rn-222 levels were observed in cold period and indoor-outdoor differences were positively correlated to the increase of Rn-222 in house. Preliminary outcomes of the regularities in the variability of the Rn-222 concentration in the building need verification with a longer data series. Further study on this line is now in progress.
Influence of outdoor thermal environment on shaded or sunlit walking path selection of pedestrian
1Gifu University, Japan; 2Daido University, Japan
When the sun is strong in summer, pedestrians would prefer to walk on shaded path or use umbrellas to reduce thermal discomfort and/or protect against ultraviolet light in urban street. On the other hand, pedestrians may prefer to walk on sunlit path for thermal comfort in winter. Although the pedestrian behavior walking shaded or sunlit path is probably affected by outdoor thermal environment, quantitative analysis of thermal condition (e.g. air temperature, solar radiation, wind velocity) is not conducted. Understanding the quantitative influence of thermal condition can allow planners to place a temporary shading devices if needed. This study analyzed influence of outdoor thermal environment on shaded or sunlit walking path selection on pedestrian through a whole year.
This study chose a pedestrian overpass with shading devices as walking path for analysis. The overpass lies north and south and joins a rail station concourse. Shading devices covers half area of the overpass, thus pedestrian can select which walking shaded path or walking sunlit path around noon. The number of pedestrians walking on shaded or sunlit path was counted by the pictures shot at 30-second intervals. The observational meteorological data using in this study was published by Japan Meteorological Agency.
Over 80% of pedestrian chose shaded walking path during clear summer days. Percentage of pedestrian walking shaded path shows a good correlation with thermal index.
Evaluation of some indices for urban heat stress found in the regional scale of Western Japan
Okayama University of Science, Japan
In Japan, a high heat stress often causes a human heat disorder in summer. Although the Japanese public organizations and related associations recommend a use of the wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index to prevent a human hyperthermia, this index is difficult to be measured by ourselves and observation sites are very few in Japanese urban regions. Hence, other simple index is better to evaluate or predict a hyperthermia in urban area. This concept is probably common in urban region worldwide. In the present study, simple indices of urban heat stress were compared with each other whether those can be applied to a heat hazard indicator for some large urban regions in Western Japan.
Big urban cities (e.g., Osaka, Kyoto, Kobe, Okayama, Hiroshima, Fukuoka, and Kumamoto) were chosen to compare the air temperature, the modified discomfort index (MDI; Moran et al., 1998), and the environmental stress index (ESI; Moran et al., 2001). The MDI can be calculated by the air temperature and relative humidity, while the ESI can be calculated by those and the solar radiation. In particular, the ESI has been evaluated and shown good responses to human physiological (Moran et al., 2003). In the present study, their index values were analyzed for 50 days of extremely hot (heat wave) period in the 2013 summer season, using the meteorological hourly data (temperature, humidity, and pressure) provided by the Japan Meteorological Agency.
We found the three main results in the present study:
(1) For many days, the Osaka city (about 2.6 million population), which is biggest urban region in Western Japan, was the highest air temperature of 35-37°C during daytime. However, the MDI and ESI estimated in the Osaka city were lower than those in some cities for many days. This was attributed to the dry urban atmosphere (lower specific humidity) in the Osaka. In addition, weaker wind and higher MDI or ESI urban regions, which suffer from a higher risk of heat disorder than the Osaka city, were found in Western Japan as indicated in (3) later.
(2) In also Japanese urban regions, the MDI and ESI indices can be applied to evaluate the human heat disorder instead of the WBGT index. These index values strongly correlated with and are same as the WBGT value. This result means that urban biometeorological environments can be predicted only using major meteorological parameters measured routinely by the meteorological observatories.
(3) When wind conditions are added to the ESI results, weak wind urban regions (e.g., the Hiroshima city of about 1.2 million population and Okayama city of about 0.7 million population) adjacent to the Seto Inland Sea which is surrounded with mountains were more stressful for the residents. This heat stress criteria was obtained from of the surface wind speed less than 1.0m/s and the ESI higher than 28 °C.
The above results suggest a valid of the ESI as a heat stress indicator in Japan under the hot and humid summer conditions. Because the Japan Meteorological Agency measures constantly the temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed at the 840 sites in Japan (corresponds to about 20 km interval in space), the use of a simple index ESI is effective to evaluate a human heat stress hazard in Japan as well.
Also, in the present study, the daily data of hyperthermia patients transported by ambulance were analyzed to reveal a response of the number of patients to the above indices. The result showed that the daily maximum air temperature was the most effective indicator possible to represent the hyperthermia incident rate in urban scale. It suggested that the ESI and WBGT were preferred as more local scale indicator within urban area (e.g., street canyon).
Linking human-biometeorological thermal conditions with Köppen-Geiger climate classification – The Example of China
Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Germany
Human thermal comfort has already been an important issue not only for obtaining a comfortable thermal environment indoors, but also for identifying the thermal comfort conditions outdoors. Köppen-Geiger climate classification (KGC) has been accepted and applied worldwide due to the briefly regional characteristics of climate. All the climatic parameters utilised in KGC, however, cannot indicate human thermal comfort conditions directly. Thus the objectives of this study are to link up thermal comfort conditions with KGC, and to gain the characteristics of thermal conditions in 11 climatic classes in China. Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) has been chosen as the thermal comfort index. Meanwhile, vapour pressure (VP) has been used to indicate the humidity conditions. In this study, 12 Chinese cities have been taken into account as the representatives of 11 climatic classes in preliminary. Basic meteorological data of each city with 3-hour resolution for the period 2000 to 2012 has been analysed. RayMan model has been used to calculate PET. Each climatic class has been described by frequencies of PET and VP. In Equatorial climates (A), for example, there are at least 80% days with PET (8-35°C) in the hottest month. In Desert climates (BW), the frequency of VP (> 18 hPa) is lower than 40% in the wettest month. The results show that it is possible to link up thermal comfort conditions with KGC in China.
Thermal comfort and landscape design in university campus
The british university in Egypt, Egypt
Landscape architecture has proven to have great values in outdoor places. Within university campuses, these include healthy, environmental, social and Educational values. Being a mean to achieve thermal comfort, designing efficient landscape with well studied patterns is important for reducing thermal stress. In hot arid climates such as Egypt, thermal heat is relatively high during summer , thus efficient usage of landscape vegetation can help reduce thermal stress and accordingly, increase the usability of university campuses. This paper is to study the influence of landscape vegetation design on thermal comfort and usability of the outdoor places for both students and staff members within the British university campus in Egypt. Microclimate measurements and climatic analysis will cover the objective assessments in the study. In addition, the subjective assessments will include a survey questionnaire and observations to monitor the users' thermal comfort and behavioral pattern within the outdoor area in the campus. Results will indicate the effect of landscape vegetation on thermal comfort and usability of the British university campus in Egypt for both staff members and students. The findings are to include different recommendations for future landscape design in the outdoor places in university campuses.
Assessment of bioclimatic comfort in urban public places – an interdisciplinary approach
RWTH Aachen University, Germany
The built environment intensively impacts the bioclimatic comfort of human beings. Surface sealing, anthropogenic heat release, dense building structures, traffic emissions and little vegetation are causing temperature and air quality anomalies at urban sites compared to rural situations.
The interdisciplinary research project FuEco at the Project House HumTec RWTH Aachen University aims at a detailed study for observing and analyzing ambient data from a public urban place to generate detailed knowledge for combined load analysis in urban public spaces.
In this context understanding the role of structure and social aspects of bioclimatic comfort for people in urban areas is of specific importance. It requires an interdisciplinary scientific approach that combines methods from both natural sciences and social sciences. For this reason we compare data of biometeorological measurements on an urban public place with results of the micrometeorological model ENVI-met as well as results of on-site interviews to evaluate heat perception of urban park users at the same public place in the city of Aachen, Germany. The study site “Elisenbrunnen” represents a 2 ha partly green urban area enclosed with buildings generally comprised of 4-5 floors in the city center of Aachen. Measurement campaigns took place in February and July 2014 and will be extended in 2015. The experimental design includes permanent measurements of wind with a 3-d sonic anemometer as well as air temperature and humidity in the center of the park. At five different measurement sites at the study area “Elisenbrunnen” micro-climate measurements with a mobile weather station consisting of 3-d infrared and solar radiation, air temperature, radiation temperature and wind (2-d sonic anemometer) at a biometeorological standard distance to the ground of 1.1 meters as well as measurements of PM were carried out.
Observations were used to calculate Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) and Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) values as quantities of thermal comfort. As expected, the data indicate diurnal and seasonal differences in the thermal load at the study sites as well as differences between the five locations in the investigated area. The analysis of the on-site interviews shows that urban park users perceive the meteorological parameters solar radiation, air temperature and humidity as equally pleasant respectively discomforting on the same measurement sites under heat stress and cold stress. Site-specific differences can be observed, especially regarding the perception of wind speed.
For a better understanding of the physical processes and for a comparison with measured data further work will focus on the simulations with the numerical microclimate model ENVI-met.
In a related paper by Paas et al. we analyze the versatile dataset from the perspective of spatial and temporal variability of PM concentrations and noise levels.
Thermal Design of Plant Canopy Structure Based on Measurement Data of Thermal Environment of Premises Woods
1Meisei University, Japan; 2Osaka Prefecture University, Japan; 3Okayama Prefectural University, Japan
Trees planted around a house in a farm are referred to as the “promises woods,” and they are common all over Japan. They play numerous roles in mitigating environmental factors: they shelter buildings from strong seasonal winds that blow from winter to the beginning of spring; create shade during summer to block the midday and evening sun, and help maintain the indoor temperature constant. The studied promises woods is located in suburban area of Tokyo. It is a mixed wood with both evergreen and deciduous trees. Measurements were made in summer and winter. The following quantities were measured: air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, global irradiance, globe temperature, and surface temperature etc. This study employs human thermal load as a thermal comfort index. Human thermal load refers to the thermal load on the human body and is calculated from the heat balance of the whole body in heat flux. Human thermal load and thermal comfort are sufficiently correlated. Psychology reports, using the POMS and SD methods, were also carried out. The POMS was developed as a method for evaluating feeling mode through questionnaires. The SD method was developed to appraise the meanings of items such as words. This method has been used to measure the impression induced by different types of sensible stimulation such as color, form, design, picture, building, music, fragrance, and taste. The promises woods effectively shut out sunlight in summer and winter, and the daytime temperature in the promises woods was lower than that in the adjacent open space. The promises woods consisted of almost homogeneous radiation fields, and the difference between the average infrared radiation temperature and the air temperature was small. The effect of the promises woods on wind speed reduction was significant during daytime in summer when the leaf area index was high. The difference between the thermal environments of the promises woods and the adjacent open space during the night was small. Human thermal load in the promises woods during the day in summer was significantly lower than that in the adjacent open space, and thermal neutrality was almost achieved. The condition under the tree canopy had a positive, relaxing influence on the psychological condition in comparison to that in the sunlit open space. Finally, we proposed a promises woods design from the viewpoint of controlling the thermal environment.
Climatic Effects on Human Thermal Comfort: Preliminary Survey in Korea
Jeju National University, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
Climatic effects on outdoor human thermal comfort are one of the most important considerations in urban and landscape planning and design. Several human thermal sensation and comfort models were developed, i.e. COMFA, MENEX, OUT-SET*, PMV, PET, PT and UTCI. However, a few studies for the comparison between different climatic zones have been conducted (Cohen et al., 2013; Lin and Matzarakis, 2008; Matzarakis and Mayer, 1996; Omonijo et al., 2013). Moreover, how seasonal climatic factors such as air temperature (Ta), wind speed (u), relative humidity (RH) and solar radiation (SR) affect human thermal sensation and comfort has never been studied before. This study investigated seasonal effects of four climatic factors (Ta, u, RH and SR) on human thermal sensation and comfort with surveying in Korea. Also, Korean human thermal sensation levels in PET were compared with previous studies. The survey was conducted in summer, fall and winter at university campuses, downtown and parks of southern Korean cities, Changwon and Daegu, in 9 times between 12:00 and 15:00 on clear days. The total participants were 876 people (male, 53.2 %; female, 46.8 %), and the survey form was prepared using ISO 10551. In the survey, five major questions were asked to participants about thermal environment: perceptual, affective evaluation, thermal preference, personal acceptability and personal tolerance with the four climatic effects on the questions. Also, four important microclimatic factors for estimating human thermal sensation were also collected in situ: Ta, u, RH and short- and longwave radiation.
The Ta was 17.2-23.9 ℃ in fall, 4.6-6.5 ℃ in winter, 27.2-29.5 ℃ in early summer and 33.6-34.3 ℃ in summer. RH was 26.3-42.6 % in fall, 18.4-38.9 % in winter and 45.1-53.3 % in early summer and summer. u was around 1.0 ms-1 in all the seasons. Radiation varied by the season and location.
Ta was shown as the most effective climatic factor in all five major questions, which was between the lowest 59.2 % of correlation (R) in winter in the Perceptual and the highest 79.7 % in all seasons in the affective evaluation. SR was the second effective one, around 40-60 % of R. People thought SR was a very effective factor in summer but less important in winter. The effects of RH and u were thought more important in winter than in summer and fall.
The PET had high Rs with the results of the perceptual and the thermal preference, 66.5-70.5 %. Also, the Rs between the perceptual and the thermal preference and between the personal acceptability and the personal tolerance were high, 73.5 % and 60.2 %, respectively. Koreans’ neutral range was 21-25 PET ℃ and thermal acceptable range was 8-26 PET ℃ when 5 thermal sensation levels (warm, slightly warm, neutral, slightly cool and cool) were included. Moreover, Koreans’ PET ranges for the heat stresses were very similar with those in Tel Aviv.
Cohen P, Potchter O, Matzarakis A. 2013. Human thermal perception of Coastal Mediterranean outdoor urban environments. Applied Geography 37: 1-10
Lin TP, Matzarakis A. 2008. Tourism climate and thermal comfort in Sun Moon Lake, Taiwan. Int J Biometeorol 52: 281-290
Matzarakis A, Mayer H. 1996. Another kind of environmental stress: thermal stress. WHO News 18: 7-10
Omonijo AG, Adeofun CO, Oguntoke O, Matzarakis A. 2013. Relevance of thermal environment to human health: a case study of Ondo State, Nigeria. Theor Appl Climatol 113: 205-212
PEDESTRIAN USE OF SQUARES AND URBAN MICROCLIMATE IN VALPARAISO, CHILE
1Escuela de Graduados, Facultad de Arquitectura. Escuela de Construcción Civil, Facultad de Ingeniería. Universidad de Valparaíso, Chile.; 2Escuela de Arquitectura, Universidad de Valparaíso, Chile.
In Public squares people can do many activities, but the urban morphology and vegetation in this public spaces affect the thermal comfort of its inhabitants. In this research seven public squares of the downtown of city of Valparaiso, Chile, located in a Mediterranean climate in the southern hemisphere were studied. Climatic variables of these places were measurements in summer of 2013. The pedestrian use was observed and the behavior of the inhabitants about the microclimate condition was evaluated, concluding a correlation between favorable climate conditions and the behavior of the inhabitants; in summer they prefers areas with shadows trees, more wetter and less air temperature. Then, the thermal behavior of these spaces is simulated using software ENVI-met comparing the climatic behavior of these squares in the present vegetation condition and a simulated maximum vegetation condition and changes in climatic patterns were studied. It observed a difference of climate behavior between the squares vegetated and non-vegetated, showing that urban vegetation favors the comfortable use of public space for a climate like Valparaiso; the urban vegetation increases the relative humidity and decreases the air temperature in the studied places, especially in daily times that are mostly used by citizens pedestrians..
Keywords: Urban microclimate, urban vegetation, pedestrian thermal comfort.
THERMAL COMFORT CONDITIONS OF SHADED OUTDOOUR SPACES IN HOT AND DRY CLIMATE OF CONSTANTINE ALGERIGA
LABORATORY ABE, UNIVERSITY OF CONSTANTINE 3 ALGERIA, Algeria
In recent years, the accelerated rate of urban growth cities highlights the critical necessity of creating more outdoor spaces for leisure and recreation activities of citizens. Nevertheless, the thermal conditions and the thermal sensation of users have not been fully explored in outdoor environments of hot and dry climate. This fact elucidates the need for considering human thermal comfort in outdoor spaces with such climates. Consequently, in this research, a quantitative field study was applied to investigate outdoor thermal comfort conditions in hot and dry climate of Constantine. Thermal conditions of outdoor spaces were evaluated based upon the measurement of major climatic parameters during summer period, while the thermal perception of subjects was captured simultaneously using a questionnaire survey. The study concentrated on the shaded outdoor spaces. Meanwhile, the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) thermal comfort index was utilized to assess the thermal comfort conditions of selected areas. Results from this study indicated besides the substantial role of environmental factors, thermal adaptation and psychological parameters. Shaded urban space influences the quality of perception, the creation of urban ambience and improves pedestrian’s thermal comfort and use of outdoor areas for this type of climate.
Towards prediction of the meteorological effects on the incidence of acute aortic dissection type A.
Free University of Berlin, Germany
Acute Aortic Dissection (AAD) is the third main cause of the out-of-hospital immediate death. Despite the state-of-the-art therapeutic and diagnostic methods, AAD develops hastily with often fatal consequences. Environmental factors may influence the onset of cardiovascular incidents like acute myocardial infraction, rupture of intracranial aneurysm or abdominal aorta. In this study, the Tölzer Weather Classification (TWC), is applied to cluster the bio-meteorological conditions based on several climatic variables (eg. temperature, pressure, wind). This scheme deals with the passage of high and low level systems which form warm and cold fronts. Each weather phase contains specific meteorological characteristics like pressure gradient, temperature advection, wind, cloudiness and precipitation. This originates from the differences in the dynamical processes behind each weather phenomenon. The incidence time of the chest pain of the patients with type A AAD diagnosis was noted as the symptom onset. The Probability Distribution Function (PDF) of weekly type A AAD cases during 2006 to 2013 shows that the there is a bimodality in the PDF with larger peak during the Autumn. The other peak occurs early Spring and late Winter. Furthermore, we present the possible relationships between the different weather phases and the incidence of type A AAD in Berlin city during 2006 to 2013. This study aims to suggest a method towards designing an early warning system to give probability estimate of the type A AAD onset with respect to prediction of different weather phases.
Subjective thermal comfort: a study in a Brazilian city park
UNESP - Universidade Estadual Paulista, Brazil
Monitoring microclimate conditions (air temperature, globe temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, global radiation), and performing the questionnaires on thermal sensation and satisfaction of users of the site – Parque do Povo, the real limits of thermal comfort were evaluated and related to thermal comfort calculated, through predictive indices, identifying differences between objective conditions comfort and subjective ones.
Parque do Povo is a linear park of about three kilometers, located in the city of Presidente Prudente - SP, Brazil, and is the main recreation area and sports activities of the city. For this research, the park was divided into five sections, and measurements and questionnaires were run in the third section, since it has the highest amount of users during the analysis period and focuses different uses (bike path, walking path, playground).
Eight measurements (morning/afternoon) were made in the spring/summer and eight in fall/winter last two years, the data were tabulated, obtaining indices PMV (Predict Mean Vote) and PET (Physiological Equivalent Temperature), enabling to calculate whether or not the users were comfortable and compare with the questionnaires (thermal sensation - what they thought of the weather (ASV – Actual Sensation Vote) - and thermal satisfaction - if they felt comfortable). PET values between 18 °C and 26 °C were considered comfortable; PMV was considered comfortable between -1 / +1 and uncomfortable between +3, +2 or -2, -3. One hundred eighty-two people were interviewed, 54% were men, the predominant age group was between 35 and 44 years and the main activity was walking (56%). The biggest reason to use the space was passing (38%).
As a result, the values of calculated thermal comfort were uncomfortable for 50% PMV and 70% PET. However, 60% of users felt comfortable their thermal sensation (ASV) and 68% were comfortable (thermal satisfaction). After analyzing the data it was possible to establish a temperature range in which users felt comfortable, and this took place between 18 ºC and 32 ºC - higher than the previously considered.
The analysis showed that users are subject to a psychological climate adaptation (users are accustomed to the climate where they live, so they respond that they are comfortable even when comfort indices show the opposite), proving that the behavior and perceptions of people are affected by subjective thermal comfort that has not always strong correlation with the comfort calculated.
Assessment of impact of green cover percentage on the variation of microclimatic parameters and thermal comfort within urban open spaces from tropical city, Nagpur.
1Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, India; 2Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal , India
Open spaces with different degrees of green cover mainly used as parks or resort areas were selected for the present work. A subject of spatial and temporal variation of microclimatic parameters and the resulting thermal comfort expressed in terms of the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) was measured within selected open spaces in a tropical city Nagpur during summer 2010-2012.PET was calibrated with the help of thermal comfort survey to recover out the range of PET for thermal sensation ranging from Very Hot (+3) to Very Cold (-3). Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) of microclimatic parameters and thermal comfort with change in greenery clearly supports that greenery can be used as an important tool for regulating variation in microclimatic parameters and thermal comfort.
Indoor comfort and air quality in spaces equipped with eco-ventilations systems
University of Algarve, Portugal
In this numerical work is intended to develop a heating, ventilation and air conditioning system (HVAC), environmentally friendlier and healthier, for seniors. This system, based on renewable energy, has a low probability to seniors be subjected to Draught Risks. This HVAC system is based on radiating surfaces (placed on floor, walls and ceiling) and confluent jets (located in the compartments surfaces). The combination of these two systems allows creating a comfortable environment with low levels of cooling, high levels of thermal comfort, high levels of air quality and low energy consumption. The radiant surfaces will be heated by solar collectors during the winter, and cooled by geothermal energy in summer conditions. The located confluent jets promote a renewal of the air in the space and do not promote drafts in the occupied space.
The coupling multi-nodal human thermal comfort integral numerical model and the computational fluid dynamics differential numerical model are used in this work. The multi-nodal human thermal comfort integral numerical model approach is used to evaluate the thermal comfort level, the human body temperature. The clothing temperature and the water vapor fields, the computational fluid dynamics differential numerical model approach is used not only to evaluate the airflow around the occupants (air temperature, air velocity, air turbulence intensity and Draught Risk), but also the air quality level (using the carbon dioxide concentration).
The environmental variables, calculated around the occupants by the computational fluid dynamics, are used as input data in the multi-nodal human thermal comfort numerical model. The human body temperature and clothing surfaces temperature, surrounding temperatures (room surfaces and desk surface) and the inlet airflow conditions (air velocity, air temperature and air turbulence intensity), are used as boundary conditions in the computational fluid dynamics numerical model in the evaluation of the environmental variables field around the occupant and the air quality level in the respiration area.
Thermal Comfort assessment of a Studio Classroom in Hot & Humid Climate Conditions
1Sathyabama University, India; 2Sathyabama University, India; 3Sathyabama University, India
A study on the indoor comfort level and air quality of a studio classroom - where the students have theory classes and drawing works in the same space. This paper presents the study of thermal comfort that will be carried out in 10 classrooms from ground to second floor in an institution at Chennai. The field study will be conducted in a week of 5 working days from 8 am to 4 pm. This study is carried out to assess their thermal conditions during the student’s lesson hours. Objective data analysis showing the environmental condition of the classroom, and Subjective analysis through questionnaire records the thermal sensation of the students. In any functional space the thermal adaptation can be attributed to three different processes - behavioral tuning, physiological accommodation and psychological training. Finally, the maximum acceptable temperature is derived through Predicted Mean Vote and comfort level from the survey results.